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Thymosin Beta 4 is a naturally occurring peptide. It is found in high concentrations in blood platelets, wound fluid and other tissues in the body. Tβ4 is not a growth factor; rather, it is a major actin regulating peptide. Tβ4 has been found to play an important role in protection, regeneration and remodeling of injured or damaged tissues. The gene for Tβ4 has also been found to be one of the first to be upregulated after a wound occurs.
Thymosin beta 4 ameliorates hyperglycemia and improves insulin resistance of KK Cg-Ay/J mouse
Insulin resistance is a key feature of type 2 diabetes mellitus and is also associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) [1-3]. There are lots of drugs in the market which aim to improve insulin resistance. However, besides metformin, other drugs have had serious adverse effects and have either been withdrawn from the market or subjected to serious warnings. For instance, rosiglitazone, an insulin sensitizer which acts by binding to the PPAR receptors in fat cells and making the cells more responsive to insulin, has been found to be associated with an increased risk of heart attack . Thus, it is very necessary to explore novel potential insulin sensitizers which could not only improve the insulin resistance but also decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease
Thymosin Beta 4 (Tβ4) is a major intracellular G-actin-sequestering peptide with amino acid sequence Ac-SDKPDMAEIEKFDKSKLKKTETQEKNPLPSKETIEQEKQAGES. Studies have shown that Tβ4 levels decreased significantly in corneas of diabetic patients compared with healthy subjects, and exogenous Tβ4 administration would promote wound healing in diabetic and nondiabetic corneas. Tβ4 could also improve glucose intolerance and ameliorated insulin resistance in KK mouse, which indicated that Tβ4 may be a potential alternative insulin sensitizer for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.